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Cleopatra Facts

About the Last Pharaoh of Egypt


Cleopatra and Son

Bas-relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion, Temple of Hathor, Dendara, Egypt

Art Media / Print Collector / Getty Images Cleopatra and Caesarion with the Egyptian gods

Cleopatra and Caesarion with the Egyptian gods

Getty Images / Hulton Archive

Cleopatra Facts:

Known for: last Pharaoh of Egypt, last of the Ptolemy dynasty of Egyptian rulers; also known for her relationships to Julius Caesar and to Marc Antony

Dates: 69 BCE - August 30, 30 BCE
Occupation: Pharaoh of Egypt (ruler)
Also Known as: Cleopatra Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Philopater; Cleopatra Philadelphus Philopator Philopatris Thea Neotera

Cleopatra Biography:

Cleopatra Biography - more about the life of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt

Background, Family:

Cleopatra VII was the descendent of Macedonians who were established as rulers over Egypt when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 323 BCE.

  • Father: Ptolemy XII Auletes ( - 51 BCE, ruled 80 BCE - 51 BCE except for 58-55 BCE)
  • Mother: Cleopatra VI Tryphaina (co-ruler 58-55 BCE with their daughter, Berenice IV, sister of Cleopatra VII)

Marriages and Partners, Children

  • brother-husband and co-ruler: Ptolemy XIII (died fighting Caesar's forces)
  • brother-husband and co-ruler: Ptolemy XIV (established by Caesar as co-ruler with Cleopatra)
  • Julius Caesar (no formal or informal marriage; Cleopatra went to Rome with him in 46 BCE; Cleopatra returned to Egypt when he was assassinated in 44 BCE)
    • Ptolemy Caesarion (b. 46 BCE)
  • Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony) (married 36 BCE; both Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves in 31 BCE on defeat by Octavian)
    • twins: Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene (born 40 BCE)
    • Ptolemy Philadelphus (born 36 BCE)

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