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Women in Ancient Egypt

Women in Ancient Egypt: Female Pharaohs Cleopatra and Hatshepsut, to ordinary Egyptian women's lives. Articles and links compiled by Jone Johnson Lewis, About Women's History Guide.
  1. Arsinoe II Philadephus
  2. Cleopatra
  3. Hatshepsut
  4. Nefertiti

Female Pharaohs
Historians and archaeologists believe that some women can be identified as having served as female Pharaoh, or ruler, of Egypt. Learn more about these women who likely ruled Egypt.

Hatshepsut, Pharaoh of Egypt
A comprehensive guide to Hatshepsut, an 18th Dynasty pharaoh who ruled Egypt nearly 3500 years ago.

Heiress Theory
Egyptologists posited that royal lineage was matriarchal in ancient Egypt. Does this theory explain why Hatshepsut and other women sometimes ruled in Egypt?

Meryt-Neith
The third ruler of the first Egyptian dynasty which united upper and lower Egypt is known only by name and a few objects -- but many scholars believe that this ruler was a woman. We don't know much about her life or her reign.

Zenobia
Warrior Queen Zenobia of Palmyra in Syria challenged Rome, though she was eventually defeated.

Egyptian Women in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt
The author translates texts from Demotic to document the legal and economic status of women in several periods of ancient Egypt.

From Warrior Women to Female Pharaohs: Careers for Women
Dr. Joann Fletcher documents the choices available to women in ancient Egypt in work life, based on the Egyptian concept of full duality of male and female.

Menkaure and His Queen:
Part of a multi-page essay on a statue discovered in 1910, this part concentrates on evidence within the image on the status of the queen vs. the king.

Women and Gender in Ancient Egypt
The Kelsey Museum of Archeology presents online version of 1997 exhibit on the status and experience of Egyptian women, 3100 BCE-700 CE.

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