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Women's Suffrage - 1865-1899

Women's Suffrage: women struggle for the right to vote. Find articles and biographies for more in-depth information on the women's suffrage struggle from the end of the Civil War through the healing of the major split in the women's rights movement. (Commonly called Woman Suffrage at the time.)

American Equal Rights Association
As the 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution were debated, and some states debated black and woman suffrage, women's suffrage advocates tried to join the two causes, but with little success and a resulting split in the women's suffrage movement.

American Woman Suffrage Association
History of the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), one of the rival groups working for women's vote in the latter half of the 19th century. Find out who was involved and what its priorities were.

National Woman Suffrage Association
The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), headed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was a rival to the AWSA. Find out about the differences between the two and the main efforts and accomplishments of the NWSA.

National American Woman Suffrage Association
The AWSA and NWSA merged into the NAWSA in 1890, forming an organization that would unify the work for women's vote. But by 1913, the movement was split again.

About Susan B. Anthony
Through the latter part of the 19th century, Susan B. Anthony was the most visible spokesperson for the campaign to win the vote for women.

About Suffrage: Cast of Characters
Biographies of the women, including Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott and anti-suffragists, from your About Guide to Women's History.

About Elizabeth Cady Stanton
While she did not travel as widely for woman suffrage as Susan B. Anthony did, Stanton's writings and strategy helped shape the movement.

About Olympia Brown
Olympia Brown, first woman minister in the United States ordained with full denominational authority -- and campaigner for woman suffrage, especially in Wisconsin and Kansas.

About Lucy Stone
Lucy Stone was a key leader of the early woman's rights movement, and continued as a key leader of one wing of the movement until the late 19th century. Biography, articles, links.

Comments on Genesis from The Woman's Bible
A selection from the scandalous Bible commentary authored by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other feminists, published 1895-1898.

Minor v. Happersett
In 1874, the US Supreme Court ruled that women were not entitled to voting rights, despite the protections of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Not For Ourselves Alone
On the 1999 Ken Burns documentary on Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.

The Other Side of the Woman Question
In this response to an article by Francis Parkman opposing woman suffrage, Julia Ward Howe uses many of the typical arguments for woman suffrage. Originally published in 1879.

The Progress of Fifty Years
Lucy Stone's last public appearance, at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago World's Fair 1893, was a review of the progress for women in her lifetime of activism.

Solitude of Soul - Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A well-known speech by Stanton. This version was delivered to the U.S. Congress.

Woman's Journal
Edited by Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell, and later by their daughter Alice Stone Blackwell, the Woman's Journal represented one half of the split women's movement after the Civil War, and continued even after the merging of the two rival halves of the movement.

United States v. Susan B. Anthony - 1873
When Susan B. Anthony voted in 1871, she was arrested, tried, and convicted in this test of women's citizenship rights.

Address To The First Anniversary of the American Equal Rights Association
An address by Frances D. Gage in 1867, on the progress to date of women's rights efforts.

Address to the National Woman Suffrage Convention, 1869
Elizabeth Cady Stanton addresses the convention, giving her reasons for outrage at the Reconstruction amendments which have left out women.

Apotheosis of Suffrage
A cartoon showing the major figures of suffrage, plus George Washington, as heavenly ideals. Published 1896.

Bible Resolution, 1896
The Bible Resolution and Susan B. Anthony's comment, NAWSA Convention, Washington, D.C., January 23-28, 1896, in the wake of the publishing of Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Woman's Bible."

Colorado Campaign, 1893
Report on the suffrage campaign of 1893, including the appeal of the campaigners to the women attending the Woman's Congress at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

Debates, American Equal Rights Association, 1869
Stanton and others debate universal suffrage, male suffrage and female suffrage. Speakers include Stanton, Mary Livermore, Anthony, Frederick Douglass, Henry Blackwell.

Debate on Woman Suffrage and the Churches
Transcript of a debate at the NWSA Convention, Washington, D.C., February 17-19, 1886, on a proposal by Elizabeth Cady Stanton that suffragists should work for woman suffrage by lobbying for change within churches.

Declaration of Rights, 1876
The story of the presentation of a case for equality by Mrs. Stanton, Mrs. Gage, Mrs. Mott, Miss Anthony and others, on the occasion of the United States Centenniel Celebration, Philadelphia, July 4, 1876.

Foreign Rule
Olympia Brown's address to the 1889 NWSA Convention.

Henry B. Blackwell, 1895
Henry B. Blackwell proposes that the South look on woman suffrage "as one solution of the negro problem" and considers educational tests "not necessarily unjust." "But in every State, save one, there are more educated women than all the illiterate voters, white and black, native and foreign."

Legal Strategies of Susan B. Anthony
How Anthony used the law to change the law.

Mrs. Livermore on Suffrage
Another eloquent statement, this from a key organizer of the Civil War's Sanitary Commission, Mary Livermore.

More Testimony from Colorado
Prof. Kelly presents the case for the legislature: why woman suffrage is important.

Not For Ourselves Alone
Information on the Ken Burns documentary on the cooperative relationship of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.

Sojourner Truth, 1867
Address by Sojourner Truth Address to the First Annual Meeting of the American Equal Rights Association, New York City, May 9, 1867.

South Dakota Campaign, 1890
Report on the suffrage campaign in 1890 in South Dakota.

United States vs. Susan B. Anthony, 1873
The case against Susan B. Anthony, for the crime of voting.

Woodhull, Victoria: And the Truth Shall Make You Free
The first woman candidate for US President details the ideas of equality and "social freedom" (called by others "free love") that made her famous and infamous in her time.

Virginia L. Minor's Petition, 1872
Missouri test of the right of women to vote under the Reconstruction amendments.

Woman as an Economic Factor, 1898
An 1898 address by Harriot Stanton Blatch to the NAWSA Convention in Washington, D.C.

Woman Suffrage and the Churches, 1886
Debate at the NWSA Convention, Washington, D.C., February 17-19, 1886, on Stanton's proposal to carry the suffrage fight into the churches.

Woman's Rights Convention, 1866
An account of the New York City convention, held May 10, 1866. Includes the call to the convention and several resolutions submitted by Susan B. Anthony, regarding the introduction of the word "male" into the Constitution for the first time, with the Reconstruction Amendments.

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