Known for: making peace with the Romans rather than rebel against their rule
Dates: about 47 - 69 CE
Also known as: "sleek pony"
Tacitus wrote of a queen leading the Brigantes, the largest British tribe. In the face of the Roman conquest's progress, Cartimandua made peace with the Romans and was allowed to rule as a client-queen. The Brigantes did not join the rebellion of Boudicca
in 61 C.E.
Unsuccessful rebels from a neighboring tribe, headed by Caractacus, asked for aid from Cartimandua, but she turned Caractacus over to the the Romans. Caractactus was taken to Rome where Claudius spared his life.
Cartimandua was married to Venutius, but wielded power as a leader in her own right. A struggle for power among the Brigantes broke out. Cartimandua asked for and received help from the Romans in regaining peace.
But in 69, Cartimandua divorced her husband Venutius and married his charioteer or arms bearer, who then would have become king. But Venutius raised support and attacked, and, even with Roman assistance, Cartimandua couldn't put down the revolt. Venutius became king of the Brigantes, and ruled it briefly as an independent kingdom. Queen Cartimandua disappears from history, and soon the Romans moved in, defeated Venutius, and ruled the Brigantes directly.