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Equal Rights Amendment Index

Resources for understanding the history of the Equal Rights Amendment in America, from its introduction in 1923 through today.
  1. Second Wave Feminism
  2. Laws and Women's History

Equal Rights Amendment
This history of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) explains the origins and outcome of the Equal Rights Amendment struggle. Refer to this ERA history for information about the effort to pass and ratify the ERA.

What Does the Equal Rights Amendment Say?
What is the text of the Equal Rights Amendment? Many people are unsure of what the ERA actually says. Read the short, simple text of the Equal Rights Amendment.

The "New" Equal Rights Amendment of 1972
Was the 1972 Equal Rights Amendment radical, or new? Why did opponents call the 1972 ERA dangerous? Learn more about the history of the "new" 1972 Equal Rights Amendment.

Standing Up for the ERA in the Senate
Feminist leaders demanded equal rights by standing up for the ERA in the Senate in 1970. Find out how protesters made legislators pay attention to the Equal Rights Amendment in the Senate.

The 1978 State of Emergency on the ERA
Feminists declared a state of emergency on the ERA in 1978, as time was running out to ratify the constitutional amendment.

The ERA Deadline
The Equal Rights Amendment(ERA)deadline led to political debate, protests and a fight for ratification. Would enough states ratify in time, or would the ERA deadline be extended beyond the 1970s?

Stop ERA
Phyllis Schlafly's "Stop ERA" campaign fought against the Equal Rights Amendment throughout the 1970s. This overview looks at the anti-ERA philosophy of Stop ERA.

FAQ: States and the Equal Rights Amendment
Frequently asked questions about states and the Equal Rights Amendment. This Equal Rights Amendment FAQ answers questions about 1970s ERA ratification, the fifty states and the Equal Rights Amendment.

National Organization for Women
A profile of the National Organization for Women, founded in 1966 to work for women's equality.

Campaign Committee Against the Equal Rights Amendment
A profile of a 1938-39 organization which opposed passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

Betty Ford and the Equal Rights Amendment
First Lady Betty Ford supported the Equal Rights Amendment and women's equality throughout the 1970s. Find out how Betty Ford supported the ERA.

Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan led the National Organization for Women to its active support of the Equal Rights Amendment.

Alice Paul
She introduced the Equal Rights Amendment in 1923, and by the time it was passed in Congress in 1970, it was often called the Alice Paul Amendment.

Gloria Steinem
Biography of Gloria Steinem, one of the most active and visible advocates for the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s.

Is the Equal Rights Amendment Detrimental to Families?
What did Phyllis Schlafly think about families and the ERA? In her 1979 speech on families and the ERA, she called feminism detrimental to families in the United States.

Financial Support and the Equal Rights Amendment
Would the 1972 Equal Rights Amendment have ended economic support for wives? Why did women fear that the ERA would take away economic support for wives and mothers?

Would the ERA Force Women Into Combat?
Anti-feminist Phyllis Schlafly warned her followers about Equal Rights Amendment dangers, such as drafting females and women in combat. Eventually, there were women in combat even without a draft or an ERA.

How Did the Senate Vote on the Equal Rights Amendment?
How did the Senate vote on the Equal Rights Amendment?

Which States Ratified the Equal Rights Amendment?
List of states that ratified the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution during the 1970s. Which 35 states ratified the Equal Rights Amendment? Find out who voted yes on ERA.

When Did States Ratify the ERA?
Equal Rights Amendment history: a year-by-year list of when states ratified the ERA. Thirty-five states voted 'yes' on the amendment. Find out when states ratified the ERA during the 1970s political fight for equality.

Which States Ratified the ERA in the First Year?
Equal Rights Amendment history: which states ratified the ERA in the first year after it passed Congress in 1972? This is a list of the 22 states that ratified the ERA in the first year.

What Was the First State to Ratify the Equal Rights Amendment?
Learn about one state's quick approval of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment in 1972 as it became the first state to ratify the ERA.

What Was the Last State to Ratify the Equal Rights Amendment?
What was the last state to ratify the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)? After years of struggle, this state became the last state to ratify the ERA in 1977.

Did Any States Ratify ERA During the Deadline Extension?
Did any states ratify the ERA during the deadline extension?

Which States Have Not Ratified the Equal Rights Amendment?
Equal Rights Amendment history: which states did not ratify the ERA during the 1970s? These fifteen states did not ratify the ERA before the final deadline set by Congress.

Which States Rescinded Their Ratifications of the ERA?
During the 1970s Equal Rights Amendment struggle, five states rescinded their ERA ratifications. There are many legal questions about rescission. Find out which five states rescinded their ERA ratifications.

Which States Ratified the ERA During 1972?
Twenty-two states ratified the Equal Rights Amendment in 1972, the year it was sent to the states after passing both houses of Congress. Which states ratified the ERA during 1972?

Which States Ratified the ERA During 1973?
State legislatures continued to approve the Equal Rights Amendment in 1973, the year after it passed the Senate. Which eight states ratified the ERA during 1973?

Which States Ratified the ERA During 1974?
A look at the status of the Equal Rights Amendment in 1974. As the struggle for equality continued, which states ratified the ERA during 1974?

Which State Ratified the ERA During 1975?
Which state ratified the ERA during 1975?

Which States Ratified the ERA During 1976?
The Equal Rights Amendment was meant to guarantee equality of rights under the law to women. Which states ratified the ERA in 1976, the U.S.A. bicentennial year? Find out if any states ratified the ERA during 1976.

Which State Ratified the ERA During 1977?
Equal Rights Amendment history: which state ratified the ERA during 1977? Read about the 35th and final state to vote yes on ERA.

Chronology of the Equal Rights Amendment, 1923-1996
From the National Organization for Women, a timeline showing key events in the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

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