Known for: ambitious and violent ruler; mother of Alexander the Great
Dates: about 375 BCE - 316 BCE
Also known as: Polyxena, Myrtale
- Father: Neoptolemus, ruled Molossia in Epirus, Greece
- claimed descent from Achilles
- husband: Philip II of Macedonia, married 357 BCE
- children: Alexander the Great born 356 BCE, Cleopatra born about 354 BCE
A follower of mystery religions, Olympias was famed -- and feared -- for her ability to handle snakes in the religious ceremonies.
Olympias was married to Philip II, newly king of Macedonia, as a political alliance arranged by her father, Neoptolemus, king of Epirus.
After fighting with Philip -- who already had three other wives -- and angrily returning to Epirus, Olympias reconciled with Philip at Macedonia's capital, Pella, and then bore Philip two children, Alexander and Cleopatra, about two years apart. Olympias later claimed that Alexander was actually the son of Zeus.
When they had been married about twenty years, Philip married again, divorced Olympias, and disowned Alexander. Olympias and Alexander went to Epirus, but soon returned to Pella. Olympias and Alexander were rumored to have been behind her husband's murder, at the wedding of their daughter Cleopatra to Olympias' brother, though whether this is true or not is disputed.
After Philip's Death
After Philip's death and the ascension of their son, Alexander, as ruler of Macedonia, Olympias is supposed to also have had Philip's wife (also named Cleopatra) and her young son and daughter killed -- and then also that Cleopatra's powerful uncle and his relatives.
Alexander left his general Antipater as regent in Macedonia, but he and Olympias frequently clashed.
After Alexander's Death
When Alexander died, Antipater's son, Cassander, tried to become the new ruler. Olympias married her daughter Cleopatra to a general who contended for the rulership, but he was soon killed in a battle. Olympias tried to marry Cleopatra to yet another possible contender to rule Macedonia.
Olympias became regent for Alexander IV, her grandson (posthumous son of Alexander the Great by Roxane), and tried to seize control of Macedonia from Cassander's forces. The Macedonian army surrendered without a fight; Olympias had the supporters of Cassander executed but Cassander was not there.
Cassander maneuvered a surprise attack and Olympias fled; he besieged Pydna where she fled, and she surrendered in 316 BCE. Cassander, who had promised not to kill Olympias, instead arranged to have Olympias murdered by relatives of his supporters that she had executed.
Places: Epirus, Pella, Greece
Religion: follower of mystery religion