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Women in the Ancient Near East

Ancient Near East women's history: Anatolia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, and other regions.

About Artemisia
In the 5th century B.C.E., this queen of Halicarnassus helped Xerxes against the Greeks, then helped talk Xerxes out of pursuing his conquest of Greece. Biography from your About Guide to Women's History.

Enheduanna, Priestess of Inanna
Enheduanna is the first author and poet in the world that history knows by name. She made Inanna supreme over the other deities in King Sargon's Akkadian empire when she became the priestess of Inanna's temple.

About Semiramis - Sammu-Ramat
Legendary warrior queen of Assyria, she's credited with building a new Babylon as well as conquest of neighboring states. Biography from your About Guide to Women's History.

Zenobia
Warrior Queen Zenobia of Palmyra in Syria challenged Rome, though she was eventually defeated.

Who Was the Queen of Sheba?
Was the Queen of Sheba from Ethiopia? Yemen? What do we know about the history of this biblical character?

Ancient Mesopotamia: The Role of Women
From the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, this "learning collection" explains and illustrates the role of women in ancient Mesopotamia, the earliest civilization in the Near or Middle East.

Code of the Assura 1075 BCE excerpts
Excerpts from the Assyrian code of law, with emphasis on the status of women.

Women in the Ancient Near East
Bibliography of relatively recent (through 1995) written source material. From the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago.

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