1. Education

African American Women: 1900-1949

Black women in the earlier 20th century, during a time of great social change. Includes the Harlem Renaissance, World War II, more.
  1. Marian Anderson
  2. Josephine Baker
  3. Mary McLeod Bethune
  4. Zora Neale Hurston
  5. Madam C. J. Walker
  6. Maggie Lena Walker
  7. Ida B. Wells-Barnett
  8. Harlem Renaissance (41)
  9. Mary Church Terrell (14)

African American History and Women - Timelines 1900-1949

African American Women - About 1900
African American women in photographs, about 1899-1900, from an album of photographs collected and compiled by W.E.B. Du Bois.

African American Women on Race - 1902
In 1902, Dr. Daniel Wallace Culp published a book of essays on various issues facing African Americans of the day, including essays by several African American women. Includes biographical information.

Black Women to the Back
In the March, 1913, suffrage parade, African American women were asked to march at the back of the demonstration. Mary Church Terrell agreed; Ida B. Wells-Barnett had a different reaction.

Harlem Renaissance Women: Dreaming in Color
From the roots to the blossoming to the neglect to the rediscovery of this important literary movement. Article by Jone Lewis, your Women's History Guide.

About Harlem Renaissance Women
From Jone Lewis, your About Guide to Women's History, biographies of women of this literary and artistic movement.

Hallie Quinn Brown
Hallie Quinn Brown biography - the life and importance of Hallie Quinn Brown, black civil rights leader, educator, and speaker.

Bessie Coleman
Bessie Coleman - biography of the pioneer aviator, first black woman to fly a plane or earn a pilot's license.

Zora Neale Hurston
From your About Guide to Women's History, a biography, net resources, and quotations on writer Zora Neale Hurston.

Madam C. J. Walker
Madam C. J. Walker biography - profile of Madam C. J. Walker, African American inventor and business executive whose hair care products were directed at black women.

Maggie Lena Walker
Profile of Maggie Lena Walker, first woman bank president,and African American business woman of Richmond, Virginia.

National Council of Negro Women
Since its founding in 1935, the National Council of Negro Women worked for civil rights, economic rights, self-help opportunities, and a stronger black family.

Suffering Suffragettes - W.E.B. duBois
This article originally appeared in the June 1912 issue of The Crisis, a journal considered one of the leading forces in the New Negro Movement and the Harlem Renaissance, addressing a failure on the part of the National American Woman Suffrage Association to support a resolution condemning the Southern disenfranchisement of African Americans, in law and in practice.

Two Suffrage Movements - Martha Gruening
This article originally appeared in the September 1912 issue of The Crisis. It addresses the historical ties of the suffrage movement to the anti-slavery movement and regrets the later move away from defending racial justice. Martha Gruening, a white woman, worked for such causes as racial justice and peace.

Coleman, Bessie
Coleman, now featured on a 32-cent US postage stamp, was not only the first woman to earn an International Aviation license but the first licensed black aviator.

Edmonia Lewis
Story of the sculptress born in the 19th century.

Inez Beverly Prosser
A pioneer African American woman in the field of educational psychology, Prosser was also one of the first black women to earn a Ph.D.

Birth of a Nation Viewing Guide
This viewing guide to the film, Birth of a Nation, asks questions about gender issues in the film, as well as racial issues. The film itself is available here: The Birth of a Nation (1915).

NAACP Official Calls for Censorship of The Birth of a Nation
When the movie The Birth of a Nation came out in 1915, glamorizing the Ku Klux Klan's beginnings, the NAACP called for censorship and a boycott. This is a letter from NAACP national secretary Mary Childs Nerney about the campaign against this movie.

Reformer Jane Addams Critiques The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation, opening in March, 1915, was a glorification of the Ku Klux Klan. Little white opposition developed, and even white reformer Jane Addams, interviewed in this article by the New York Post, managed to accept some of the premises of the film, even while calling it a "pernicious caricature of the Negro race."

"The people ... took exception to her remarks"
Subtitle: Meta Warrick Fuller, Angelina Weld Grimke, and the lynching of Mary Turner. This article by Julie Buckner Armstrong of the lynching of a woman in 1918 in Georgia, in an episode of violence that also killed at least ten other African Aemricans, is from The Mississippi Quarterly in January, 2008.

Mary White Ovington: How the NAACP Began
An etext version of the Mary White Ovington's 1914 (?) pamphlet detailing the origins and beginning of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial group working for civil rights.

Platform Adopted, 1909
Calling itself the National Negro Committee (later evolving into the NAACP), this image shows the first platform of this national organization founded in 1909. The flyer includes a list of the women and men who were the founding members, including Lillian Wald, Mary White Ovington, Jane Addams, Ida Wells-Barnett and Celia Parker Woolley.

How Did Black Women in the NAACP Promote the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, 1918-1923?
This series of documents shows the actions of black women in the NAACP in supporting a major anti-lynching initiative, the Dyer Bill.

Letter from Kathryn M. Johnson to NAACP Board of Directors, ca. July 1916
In this letter, "Miss Kathryn M. Johnson," a field agent with the NAACP, is protesting her dismissal as an NAACP field agent. It raises issues of gender within the civil rights organization.

Missing in Action: Ida B. Wells, the NAACP, and the Historical Record
Paula Giddings highlights divisions within the early civil rights movement, as she documents how Ida B. Wells-Barnett was excluded from the historical record, including from early celebrations of Carter G. Woodson's "Negro History Week" which evolved into Black History Month.

Still Livin' Under the Bonds of Slavery
Minnie Whitney describes sharecropping in the late 19th and early 20th century. Includes audio.

Virginia Passenger and Power Street-Cars: Segregation Protest
This document summarizes articles in 1905 in the Richmond [Virginia] Planet about the segregation of the street-cars owned by the Virginia Passenger and Power Company, and the subsequent protests and boycott of the company. Note the participation of both women and men in the meetings.

Within Our Gates (1920)
This Oscar Michaeaux silent film tells the story of an educated "negro woman" and her life. About lynching and gender issues: note that in the lynching scene (near the end) both a black man and a black woman are lynched, and white women are part of the lynch mob.

Within Our Gates (1920): Guide
A guide that may be helpful in viewing the 1920 black and white silent film, Within Our Gates, produced by the first known African American filmmaker, Oscar Micheaux.

African-American Experience in Ohio 1850 - 1920
A digital collection of materials on black history in Ohio.

Margaret Murray Washington
Margaret Murray Washington worked closely with her husband, Booker T. Washington, at Tuskegee Institute; she also worked to bring African American women together in organizations like the NACW.

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